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The ICGA Journal, formerly, until 1999, the ICCA Journal is the quarterly published magazine, received by all ICGA members [1]. World-wide membership comprises individuals as well as niversity and industrial members.
Current Issue

Table of Contents

Photos

FridoGinkgoR2WCCC2015.JPG
WCCC 2015 round 2, Fridolin vs. Ginkgo with some ICCA Journals, Christian Sommerfeld and Ingo Bauer,
Richard Pijl on the right fighting the Komodo with his Baron [2]

Editors

Editor-in-Chief

Editorial Manager

Honorary Editor

Associate Editor

Editor for ICGA Affairs

Editorial Board


ICGA Links


Table of Contents, Abstracts and Selected Papers

by Ernst A. Heinz and Heiner Marxen the ICGA [3][4], further continued with selected contents by CPW editors.

Volume 1, 1978



ICCA Newsletter, Vol. 1, No. 1


ICCA Newsletter, Vol. 1, No. 2


Volume 2, 1979



ICCA Newsletter, Vol. 2, No. 1


ICCA Newsletter, Vol. 2, No. 2

  • Jacques Pitrat, A Program which Uses Plans for Finding Combinations in Chess.
  • David Slate, Tenth Annual ACM North American Computer Chess Championship. » ACM 1979
  • Kathe Spracklen, Second Annual European Microcomputer Chess Championship - Results and Authors. » PCW-MCC 1979
  • Jack Good, Rules for computer chess tournaments: an open letter to the tournament rules and organization committee of the International Computer Chess Association.

Volume 3, 1980



ICCA Newsletter Vol. 3, No. 1


ICCA Newsletter, Vol. 3, No. 2


ICCA Newsletter, Vol. 3, No. 3


Volume 4, 1981



ICCA Newsletter, Vol. 4, No. 1


ICCA Newsletter, Vol. 4, No. 2

  • Ben Mittman, Ken Thompson, Second World Microcomputer Chess Championship, Travemünde and Hamburg, West Germany. » WMCCC 1981
  • Ben Mittman, Second World Microcomputer Chess Championship, Travemünde and Hamburg, West Germany - Opening Address.

ICCA Newsletter, Vol. 4, No. 3


Volume 5, 1982



ICCA Newsletter, Vol. 5, No. 1


ICCA Newsletter, Vol. 5, No. 2


Volume 6, 1983



ICCA Newsletter, Vol. 6, No. 1


ICCA Newsletter, Vol. 6, No. 2


ICCA Journal, Vol. 6, No. 3


ICCA Journal, Vol. 6, No. 4


Volume 7, 1984



ICCA Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1


ICCA Journal, Vol. 7, No. 2


ICCA Journal, Vol. 7, No. 3


ICCA Journal, Vol. 7, No. 4


Volume 8, 1985



ICCA Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1


ICCA Journal, Vol. 8, No. 2


ICCA Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3


ICCA Journal, Vol. 8, No. 4


Volume 9, 1986



ICCA Journal, Vol. 9, No. 1


ICCA Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2


ICCA Journal, Vol. 9, No. 3


ICCA Journal, Vol. 9, No. 4


Volume 10, 1987



ICCA Journal, Vol. 10, No. 1


ICCA Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2


ICCA Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3


ICCA Journal, Vol. 10, No. 4


Volume 11, 1988



ICCA Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1


ICCA Journal, Vol. 11, Nos. 2/3


ICCA Journal, Vol. 11, No. 4


Volume 12, 1989



ICCA Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1


ICCA Journal, Vol. 12, No. 2


ICCA Journal, Vol. 12, No. 3


ICCA Journal, Vol. 12, No. 4


Volume 13, 1990



ICCA Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1


ICCA Journal, Vol. 13, No. 2


ICCA Journal, Vol. 13, No. 3


ICCA Journal, Vol. 13, No. 4


Volume 14, 1991



ICCA Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1


ICCA Journal, Vol. 14, No. 2


ICCA Journal, Vol. 14, No. 3


ICCA Journal, Vol. 14, No. 4


Volume 15, 1992



ICCA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 1


ICCA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 2


ICCA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 3


ICCA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 4


Volume 16, 1993



ICCA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 1


ICCA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2


ICCA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 3


ICCA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 4


Volume 17, 1994



ICCA Journal, Vol. 17, No. 1


ICCA Journal, Vol. 17, No. 2


ICCA Journal, Vol. 17, No. 3


ICCA Journal, Vol. 17, No. 4


Volume 18, 1995



ICCA Journal, Vol. 18, No. 1


ICCA Journal, Vol. 18, No. 2


ICCA Journal, Vol. 18, No. 3


ICCA Journal, Vol. 18, No. 4


Volume 19, 1996



ICCA Journal, Vol. 19, No. 1


ICCA Journal, Vol. 19, No. 2

[8]

ICCA Journal, Vol. 19, No. 3


ICCA Journal, Vol. 19, No. 4


Volume 20, 1997



ICCA Journal, Vol. 20, No. 1


ICCA Journal, Vol. 20, No. 2


ICCA Journal, Vol. 20, No. 3


ICCA Journal, Vol. 20, No. 4


Volume 21, 1998



ICCA Journal, Vol. 21, No. 1


ICCA Journal, Vol. 21, No. 2


ICCA Journal, Vol. 21, No. 3


ICCA Journal, Vol. 21, No. 4


Volume 22, 1999



ICCA Journal, Vol. 22, No. 1


ICCA Journal, Vol. 22, No. 2


ICCA Journal, Vol. 22, No. 3


ICCA Journal, Vol. 22, No. 4


Volume 23, 2000



ICGA Journal, Vol. 23, No. 1


ICGA Journal, Vol. 23, No. 2


ICGA Journal, Vol. 23, No. 3


ICGA Journal, Vol. 23, No. 4


Volume 24, 2001



ICGA Journal, Vol. 24, No. 1


ICGA Journal, Vol. 24, No. 2


ICGA Journal, Vol. 24, No. 3


ICGA Journal, Vol. 24, No. 4


Volume 25, 2002



ICGA Journal, Vol. 25, No. 1


ICGA Journal, Vol. 25, No. 2


ICGA Journal, Vol. 25, No. 3


ICGA Journal, Vol. 25, No. 4


Volume 26, 2003



ICGA Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1


ICGA Journal, Vol. 26, No. 2


ICGA Journal, Vol. 26, No. 3


ICGA Journal, Vol. 26, No. 4


Volume 27, 2004



ICGA Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1


ICGA Journal, Vol. 27, No. 2


ICGA Journal, Vol. 27, No. 3


ICGA Journal, Vol. 27, No. 4


Volume 28, 2005



ICGA Journal, Vol. 28, No. 1


ICGA Journal, Vol. 28, No. 2


ICGA Journal, Vol. 28, No. 3


ICGA Journal, Vol. 28, No. 4


Volume 29, 2006



ICGA Journal, Vol. 29, No. 1


ICGA Journal, Vol. 29, No. 2


ICGA Journal, Vol. 29, No. 3


ICGA Journal, Vol. 29, No. 4


Volume 30, 2007



ICGA Journal, Vol. 30, No. 1


ICGA Journal, Vol. 30, No. 2


ICGA Journal, Vol. 30, No. 3


ICGA Journal, Vol. 30, No. 4


Volume 31, 2008



ICGA Journal, Vol. 31, No. 1


ICGA Journal, Vol. 31, No. 2


ICGA Journal, Vol. 31, No. 3


ICGA Journal, Vol. 31, No. 4


Volume 32, 2009



ICGA Journal, Vol. 32, No. 1


ICGA Journal, Vol. 32, No. 2


ICGA Journal, Vol. 32, No. 3


ICGA Journal, Vol. 32, No. 4


Volume 33, 2010



ICGA Journal, Vol. 33, No. 1


ICGA Journal, Vol. 33, No. 2


ICGA Journal, Vol. 33, No. 3


ICGA Journal, Vol. 33, No. 4


Volume 34, 2011



ICGA Journal, Vol. 34, No. 1


ICGA Journal, Vol. 34, No. 2


ICGA Journal, Vol. 34, No. 3


ICGA Journal, Vol. 34, No. 4


Volume 35, 2012



ICGA Journal, Vol. 35, No. 1


ICGA Journal, Vol. 35, No. 2


ICGA Journal, Vol. 35, No. 3


ICGA Journal, Vol. 35, No. 4


Volume 36, 2013



ICGA Journal, Vol. 36, No. 1


ICGA Journal, Vol. 36, No. 2


ICGA Journal, Vol. 36, No. 3


ICGA Journal, Vol. 36, No. 4


Volume 37, 2014



ICGA Journal, Vol. 37, No. 1


ICGA Journal, Vol. 37, No. 2


ICGA Journal, Vol. 37, No. 3


ICGA Journal, Vol. 37, No. 4


Volume 38, 2015



ICGA Journal, Vol. 38, No. 1


ICGA Journal, Vol. 38, No. 2


ICGA Journal, Vol. 38, No. 3


ICGA Journal, Vol. 38, No. 4



Volume 39, 2017



ICGA Journal, Vol. 39, No. 1


ICGA Journal, Vol. 39, No. 2


History of the Journal


1977

In 1977 the Computer Chess Newsletter, Issue 1 [41] and 2 [42] were published by Editor Douglas Penrod.

1978

After founding the ICCA during the Second World Computer Chess Championship 1977 in Toronto, the ICCA Newsletter was published three or four times yearly.

Quote by Jaap van den Herik, Editorial of ICGA Journal Vol. 30, No. 1 - March 2007:
In 1978 Ben Mittman and Barend Swets started the ICCA Newsletter. It was specialized on chess. Owing to the series of Advances in Computer Chess Conferences, which in 1999 changed to Advances in Computer Games Conferences, the ICCA Journal broadened its scope, too, and published articles on other games. This can be seen as a generalization. As a direct consequence, the Journal was renamed into ICGA Journal.

1983

From the ACM-83 WCCC 1983 booklet The ICCA:[43]
Established at the Second World Computer Chess Championship in Toronto 1977, the International Computer Chess Association currently has several hundred members. Ben Mittman serves as President and, until just recently, as Editor of the ICCA Newsletter which is published three or four times yearly. The ICCA Journal will appear in its place shortly with refereed papers. Jaap van den Herik has assumed the Editorship. Monroe Newborn and Ken Thompson serve as Vice President and Secretary/Treasurer, respectively. Dues are $10 (U.S.) for one year membership.
Interested individuals should write to Ken Thompson, Bell Laboratories, Room 2C, 423 Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974, USA.

1984

From the ACM-84 booklet The ICCA:[44]
Established at the Second World Computer Chess Championship in Toronto 1977, the International Computer Chess Association currently has several hundred members. Monty Newborn serves as President; Jaap van den Herik serves as Editor of the ICCA Journal which is published four times yearly. Johann Enroth and William Blanchard serve as Vice-President and Secretary/Treasurer, respectively. Dues are $10 (U.S.) for a one year membership. Interested individuals should write to William Blanchard, 360/253 Blackthorn Lane, Warrenville, Illinois 60555 USA.

1989

From the WCCC 1989 booklet The International Computer Chess Association:[45]:
Established at the Second World Computer Chess Championship in Toronto 1977, this international association has about five hundred members from all over the world. It is published four times a year. The international Computer Chess Association (ICCA) is an international organization that represents the computer chess world, not only to the computer science community (such as ACM, IEEE, and IFIP), but also to the world chess federation (FIDE). The most visible benefit of membership is the quarterly ICCA Journal. Each issue contains roughly 60 pages outlining the latest in computer chess research, news, tournament results, book reviews, conferences, games, etc.: something for researchers, chess program hobbyists, and chess players.

Cost: $25 per year.
Mail to: Dr. Jonathan Schaeffer Department of Computing Science University of Alberta Edmonton, AB Canada TG6 2H1

1995

Same text as 1989, prices and persons changed.
From the WCCC 1995 booklet International Computer Chess Association:[46]:
Cost: $36 US per year, 24 UK pounds or 60 Dutch florins

Mail to (for UK and N.America) Don Beal, Dept of Computer Science Queen Mary & Westfield College, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK

(Rest of the world) Prof. dr Van den Herik, University of Limburg, Dept of Computer Science P.O.Box 616, 6200 Maastricht The Netherlands

2000

With the first issue of the new millennium, the ICCA Journal was renamed into the ICGA Journal [47]:
For many years, the ICCA Journal occasionally included articles on games other than chess. This has included Backgammon, Othello, Chinese Chess, Shogi, Go, and fundamental issues affecting the programming of all such games. To reflect this increasing interest in other games, the Journal changed its name to the ICGA Journal from Vol.23 No.1 (the first issue of 2000).

However, it took further two and a half years, when the organization renamed from ICCA to ICGA as well, for a broader scope to reflect the more general way in which computer-game capability contributes to Artificial Intelligence and to the human experience of game-playing [48].

2004

From the current Journal site: [49]:
The ICGA Journal appears four times a year. In order to receive the Journals for 2004 you should subscribe as an ICGA member. The (renewal) fee for individual subscribers is US $ 50,-, UK £ 25,- or € 40,-.

2008 From Maastricht to Tilburg

The new home of the ICGA Headquarters, quote from the ICGA Journal Vol. 31, No. 2 - June 2008:

As per September 1, 2008 the ICGA Headquarters are moving from Maastricht, the Netherlands to Tilburg, the Netherlands. After 21 years of services to the Maastricht University your Editor has accepted an offer by the Tilburg University that he could not refuse. Together with his close colleague Professor Eric Postma he moves to Tilburg, where he is given the opportunity to lead a brand-new research centre called Tilburg Centre for Creative Computing (TiCC). The research centre will have five full professors, sufficient research money, and the full support of the Tilburg University authorities. The centre will focus on three domains: vision (led by Eric Postma), language (led by Antal van den Bosch), and (serious) gaming (led by Jaap van den Herik, who also acts as Director of the Centre). Many colleague researchers/collaborators from Maastricht will join the new research group at TiCC. Most notably among them is Johanna Hellemons who will continue her work as Editorial Manager in Tilburg.

The news was a shock for Maastricht, Limburg, and the Netherlands. Every respected daily newspaper reported on the transition by Van den Herik and Postma. Here, the most crispy statement came from the Chairman of the VSNU (Verenigde Samenwerkende Nederlandse Universiteiten; the Union of the Collaborative Dutch Universities), Dr. Sijbold Noorda, who straightforwardly expressed his understanding by stating: “Mobility shows spirit”.

Admittedly, a move from Maastricht to Tilburg implies a farewell to some well-known names. Many of them will not escape the scope of our community, but one name does: Tons van den Bosch. Long-time members of the ICGA (previously ICCA) will remember her from the many activities she performed in the years 1990 up to 1997 (see ICCA Journal, Vol. 20, No. 2, p. 70). In 2005, she returned at our institute MICC-IKAT and took up some of her responsibilities for the ICGA. It was if she had never left.

In 2007, Tons van den Bosch and Johanna Hellemons were both instrumental to the success of our ICGA President David Levy. During his public defence for the Doctor’s title they were his paranimfs. Soon after this defence Tons became seriously ill. Currently she is in a phase of strengthening her forces, but she is not expected to resume work soon. The ICGA is grateful to her for all the services delivered and for her enthusiasm to help transforming the members of the ICGA into a society of friends who love research in games and game environments, and who love to meet each other once a year at the Computer Olympiad, the Computer and Games Conference, and at the World Computer Chess Championship.

This year, the meeting of friends will be in Beijing, China. It will be soon (September/October 2008) as is announced in the March issue. The subscription figures at this point in time show that the three ICGA events in Beijing are expected to be the most successful ones of all. Over one hundred people are participating. The world of games will have a golden time in Beijing and the ICGA hopes to reap the fruits from these successful events.

Meanwhile the Editorial team has the pleasure to offer you the June issue of the Journal. Three games received a great deal of attention: Go, Jeopardy Stochastic Games, and Chess. Obviously, nowadays there is no Go publication possible without Monte Carlo. The authors adequately go along with this statement. The second article deals with an interesting generalisation of Can’t Stop, namely Jeopardy Stochastic Games. It can be seen as a completely new area of games research. Analogously, the article on chess is actually on ‘chess and measuring its beauty’. It is not on new chess programming techniques. Finally, it is worthwhile to mention that the proceedings of the CG 2008 are currently with Springer-Verlag. They will be delivered in time – we hope – in China for our Conference, where we will see 24 contributors gathering; they will inform us on their latest findings. Therefore, I hope to see many of you soon in China.

2014 From Tilburg to Leiden

Quote from Jaap van den Herik (2013). From Tilburg to Leiden. ICGA Journal, Vol. 36, No. 4

The ICGA Journal is moving for the fourth time in its existence. This time we move from Tilburg to Leiden.

The reason for the current movement is that your Editor has now taken up a position in the Faculty of Science at Leiden University with the task of helping to establish the Leiden Centre of Data Science. He is pleased to mention that his move is taking place together with Joke Hellemons and Aske Plaat. It means that from January 1, 2014 the ICGA Headquarters are located at LIACS Leiden, the Netherlands. As you all may know Leiden has a rich history and many Noble Prize winners in physics. It is the oldest University city in the Netherlands and also well known for its Faculty of Law. Obviously, we look forward to welcoming our ICGA colleagues in this ancient and beautiful city. Although the ICGA headquarters are moving, the principles and themes of the Journal transcend geography and evolve apace.

The visiting address is: Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science (LIACS), Snellius Building, Room 164, Niels Bohrweg 1, 2333 CA Leiden, the Netherlands.

2016 Break

Due to the vacancy of the Editor-in-Chief after Jaap van den Herik's retirement end of 2015 [50], the ICGA Journal took a break in 2016. Publication is intended to continue with Volume 39 in 2017 by IOS press, preprints available online for members [51]. Editor-in-Chief will be I-Chen Wu - with the proposal of rotation every two years.


ICGA Journal Awards

In 1992, a novel Award was instituted by the ICCA, the ICCA Journal Award. The Award is to be adjudicated annually to a first-time author for the best article in the ICCA/ICGA Journal in the year under consideration.
Year
Award Winner
Article
Published in
1993
Peter Jansen
Peter Jansen (1993). KQKR: Speculatively Thwarting a Human Opponent.
Vol. 16, No. 1

1994
Chrilly Donninger
Chrilly Donninger (1993). Null Move and Deep Search: Selective-Search Heuristics for Obtuse Chess Programs.
Vol. 16, No. 3

1995
Bradley Kuszmaul
Bradley Kuszmaul (1995). The StarTech Massively Parallel Chess Program.
Vol. 18, No. 1
pdf
1996
Michael Buro
Michael Buro (1995). ProbCut: An Effective Selective Extension of the Alpha-Beta Algorithm.
Vol. 18, No. 2
pdf
1997
Mark Brockington
Mark Brockington (1996). A Taxonomy of Parallel Game-Tree Search Algorithms.
Vol. 19, No. 3

1998
Andreas Junghanns
Andreas Junghanns (1998). Are there Practical Alternatives to Alpha-Beta?
Vol. 21, No. 1

1999
Ernst A. Heinz
Ernst Heinz (1998). Efficient Interior-Node Recognition.
Vol. 21, No. 3

2000
Darse Billings
Darse Billings (2000). Thoughts on RoShamBo.
Vol. 23, No. 1

2001
Thomas Thomsen
Thomas Thomsen (2000). Lambda-Search in Game Trees with Application to Go.
Vol. 23, No. 4

2002
Ren Wu
Ren Wu, Don Beal (2001). Fast, Memory-efficient Retrograde Algorithms.
Vol. 24, No. 3

2003
David Fotland
David Fotland (2002). Static Eye in "The Many Faces of Go".
Vol. 25, No. 4

2004
Haw-ren Fang
Haw-ren Fang, Tsan-sheng Hsu, Shun-Chin Hsu (2004). Checking Indefinitely in Chinese-Chess Endgames.
Vol. 27, No. 1

2005
Kohei Noshita
Kohei Noshita (2005). Union-Connections and Straightforward Winning Strategies in Hex. + Companion pdf
Vol. 28, No. 1
pdf
2006
Fridel Fainshtein
Fridel Fainshtein, Yaakov HaCohen-Kerner (2006). A Chess Composer of Two-Move Mate Problems.
Vol. 29, No. 1
pdf
2007
Gian Piero Favini
Paolo Ciancarini, Gian Piero Favini (2007). A Program to Play Kriegspiel.
Vol. 30, No. 1

2008
Rémi Coulom
Rémi Coulom (2007). Computing “Elo Ratings” of Move Patterns in the Game of Go.
Vol. 30, No. 4
pdf
2009
Nathan Sturtevant
Nathan Sturtevant (2008). An Analysis of UCT in Multi-Player Games.
Vol. 31, No. 1
pdf
2010
Yoshikuni Sato
Yoshikuni Sato, Daisuke Takahashi, Reijer Grimbergen (2010). A Shogi Program based on Monte-Carlo Tree Search.
Vol. 33, No. 2
pdf
2011
Petr Baudiš
Petr Baudiš (2011). Balancing MCTS by Dynamically Adjusting the Komi Value.
Vol. 34, No. 3

2012
Diogo R. Ferreira
Diogo R. Ferreira (2012). Determining the Strength of Chess Players Based on Actual Play.
Vol. 35, No. 1

2013
Kunihito Hoki
Kunihito Hoki, Tomoyuki Kaneko, Akihiro Kishimoto, Takeshi Ito (2013). Parallel Dovetailing and its Application
to Depth-First Proof-Number Search.
Vol. 36, No. 1


See also


External Links


References

  1. ^ The quarterly published ICGA Journal
  2. ^ Photo by Gerd Isenberg
  3. ^ ICGA Journal Contents Database
  4. ^ ICGA Reference Database (pdf)
  5. ^ Jan Hein Donner from Wikipedia
  6. ^ Lionel Moser (1984). An Experiment in Distributed Game Tree Searching, M.Sc. thesis, University of Waterloo
  7. ^ Albert Zobrist (1970). A New Hashing Method with Application for Game Playing. Technical Report #88, Computer Science Department, The University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA. Reprinted (1990) in ICCA Journal, Vol. 13, No. 2, pdf
  8. ^ ICCAJ v.19 n.2 now in North America by Steven Edwards, rgcc, July 03, 1996
  9. ^ Misinformation about RAJAH in the ICCA post by Valavan Manohararajah in rgcc, April 5, 1997
  10. ^ Re: ICCA Journal Sinks To A New Low by Amir Ban, CCC, January 25, 1998
  11. ^ Ernst A. Heinz (1999). Scalable Search in Computer Chess.
  12. ^ Kasparov versus the World from Wikipedia
  13. ^ Renju from Wikipedia
  14. ^ John Romein (2001). Multigame - An Environment for Distributed Game-Tree Search. Ph.D. thesis
  15. ^ Claude Shannon article written by Ben Mittman
  16. ^ K-Best Visualisations by Ingo Althöfer
  17. ^ Gifu Challenge 2003 by Michael Reiss
  18. ^ slightly revised version of the CG 2004 paper Brian Sheppard (2004). Efficient Control of Selective Simulations.
  19. ^ Seven Year Itch (disambiguation) from Wikipedia
  20. ^ Chess News - Embracing Risk in Tournaments by Darse Billings, ChessBase News, December 14, 2006
  21. ^ Omid David (2009). Genetic Algorithms Based Learning for Evolving Intelligent Organisms. Ph.D. Thesis
  22. ^ Cameron Browne (2008). Automatic Generation and Evaluation of Recombination Games, Doctoral Dissertation, Queensland University of Technology, pdf
  23. ^ Matej Guid (2010). Search and Knowledge for Human and Machine Problem Solving, Ph.D. thesis, University of Ljubljana, pdf
  24. ^ Attack of the clones | ChessVibes by David Levy, 19 February, 2011
  25. ^ Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie win Japan 'Nobel' Prize, ChessBase News, January 26, 2011
  26. ^ Sander Bakkes (2010). Rapid Adaptation of Video Game AI. Ph.D. thesis, Tilburg University, pdf
  27. ^ Diaballik from Wikipedia
  28. ^ Gian Piero Favini (2010). The Dark Side of the Board: Advances in Chess Kriegspiel. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Bologna, Technical Report UBLCS-2010-06 as pdf
  29. ^ Nonogram from Wikipedia
  30. ^ TAAI 2011
  31. ^ Nonogram from Wikipedia
  32. ^ Global brain from Wikipedia
  33. ^ Ms Pac-Man vs Ghosts Competition
  34. ^ GECCO 2012
  35. ^ Dovetailing (computer science) from Wikipedia
  36. ^ Chomp from Wikipedia
  37. ^ Abdallah Saffidine (2013). Solving Games and All That. Ph.D. thesis, Université Paris-Dauphine
  38. ^ Epaminondas (game) from Wikipedia
  39. ^ Computer Diplomacy Challenge | ICGA
  40. ^ Transcript of Kasparov’s TED talk, May 2017
  41. ^ Computer Chess Newsletter, Issue 1 1977 by Douglas Penrod, Courtesy of Peter Jennings pdf from The Computer History Museum
  42. ^ Computer Chess Newsletter, Issue 2 1977 by Douglas Penrod, Courtesy of Peter Jennings, pdf from The Computer History Museum
  43. ^ The Fourth World Computer Chess Championship New York, New York October 22-25, 1983 A Special Event at ACM-83. The ICCA pp 19. pdf from The Computer History Museum (via the wrong labeled site The 22nd ACM International Computer Chess Championship)
  44. ^ The 15th ACM International Computer Chess Championship San Francisco, California October 7-9, 1984 A Special Event at ACM-84. The ICCA pp 25. pdf from The Computer History Museum (via the site The 15th ACM International Computer Chess Championship)
  45. ^ King Moves, Welcome to the 1989 AGT World Computer Chess Championship Edmonton, Canada, May 28, 1989. The International Computer Chess Association pp 26. pdf from The Computer History Museum Courtesy of Peter Jennings (via the site The 6th World Computer Chess Championship)
  46. ^ 8th World Computer Chess Championship 25-30 May 1995 Hong Kong. International Computer Chess Association pp 25. pdf from The Computer History Museum Courtesy of Monroe Newborn (via the site 8th World Computer Chess Championship)
  47. ^ ICCA Journal (Now ICGA Journal)
  48. ^ ICCA BECOMES ICGA by David Levy, President of the ICGA, ICGA Journal Vol. 25, No. 3 - September 2002
  49. ^ ICGA Journal, Published Quarterly for ICGA Members current Journal site
  50. ^ Editor-in-Chief Wanted | ICGA by David Levy, October 6, 2016
  51. ^ ICGA Journal - Volume Preprint, issue Preprint - Journals - IOS Press


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