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Kevin J. Gilmartin,
an American psychologist with a Ph.D. in 1974 from Carnegie Mellon University under thesis advisor Herbert Simon. Gilmartin and Simon extended Simon's and Barenfeld's program Perceiver, which was able to duplicate the eye movements of a chess expert by adhering to the simple relations of attack and defense [1] into a system called MAPP (Memory-aided Pattern Perceiver) which uses the learning mechanism of EPAM, and reinforced the chunking hypothesis by subjecting MAPP to the same board reconstruction experiment that the human players faced [2]. By determining the patterns present on the board, and restricted to the same short-term memory constraints as humans [3], MAPP was able to reconstruct positions with 73% accuracy [4] [5].

See also

Selected Publications



  1. ^ Herbert Simon, Michael Barenfeld (1969). Information-processing analysis of perceptual processes in problem solving. Psychological Review, Vol. 76, No. 5
  2. ^ William Chase, Herbert Simon (1973). Perception in chess. Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 4, No. 1
  3. ^ George Armitage Miller (1956). The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two. Psychological Review, Vol. 101, No. 2, pdf
  4. ^ Herbert Simon, Kevin J. Gilmartin (1973). A Simulation of Memory for Chess Positions. Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 5, pp. 29-46. pdf
  5. ^ Michael George, Jonathan Schaeffer (1990). Chunking for Experience. ICCA Journal, Vol. 13, No. 3, pdf
  6. ^ ICGA Reference Database (pdf)

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