Mark James Watkins,
an American mathematician affiliated with the School of Mathematics and Statistics ^{[1]}, University of Sydney, and member of its Computational Algebra Group^{[2]}. In computer chess forums, Mark Watkins is well known under the pseudonym "BB+" as an expert poster and publisher of recognized papers concerning the Rybkacontroversies (both Ippolit and then Fruit). In February 2011, Mark Watkins disbanded his anonymity when involved in the ICGA Investigations regarding Fruit and Rybka.

Since late 2011 Mark Watkins worked on his long-term goal to weakly solve the game of Losing Chess, presumably by showing that 1. e3 wins for White. As of summer 2014 ^{[4]}, leaving b6 and c5 as the remaining Black responses ^{[5]}, all other responses to 1.e3 are indeed White wins, along with earlier work done by Ben Nye and others, as demonstrated by Proof-Number Search combined with Endgame Tablebases. On February 02, 2015, 1. e3 c5 was announced solved, on October 10, 2016, 1. e3 b6, proving 1.e3 wins ^{[6]}.

Home * People * Mark WatkinsMark James Watkins,an American mathematician affiliated with the School of Mathematics and Statistics

^{[1]}, University of Sydney, and member of itsComputational Algebra Group^{[2]}. In computer chess forums, Mark Watkins is well known under the pseudonym "BB+" as an expert poster and publisher of recognized papers concerning the Rybka controversies (both Ippolit and then Fruit). In February 2011, Mark Watkins disbanded his anonymity when involved in the ICGA Investigations regarding Fruit and Rybka.^{[3]}## Table of Contents

## Solving Losing Chess

Since late 2011 Mark Watkins worked on his long-term goal to weakly solve the game of Losing Chess, presumably by showing that 1. e3 wins for White. As of summer 2014^{[4]}, leaving b6 and c5 as the remaining Black responses^{[5]}, all other responses to 1.e3 are indeed White wins, along with earlier work done by Ben Nye and others, as demonstrated by Proof-Number Search combined with Endgame Tablebases. On February 02, 2015, 1. e3 c5 was announced solved, on October 10, 2016, 1. e3 b6, proving 1.e3 wins^{[6]}.## Selected Publications

## 2000 ...

2000).Class Numbers of Imaginary Quadratic Fields. Ph.D. thesis, University of Georgia, advisor Carl Bernard Pomerance^{[7]}2004).Real Zeros of Real Odd Dirichlet L-Functions. Mathematics of Computation, Vol. 73 , No. 245, pdf^{[8]}2004).Elliptic Curves of Large Rank and Small Conductor. arXiv:math/0403374, LNCS 30762006).A Note on Integral Points on Elliptic Curves. Journal de Theorie des Nombres de Bordeaux, Vol. 18, No. 3, pdf## 2010 ...

2010).A comparison of Rybka and IPPOLIT. pdf^{[9]}» Rybka, Ippolit2011).Computing with Hecke Grössencharacters. Publications Mathematiques de Besancon, pdf^{[10]}2011).A comparison of Rybka 1.0 Beta and Fruit 2.1, pdf, February 12, 2011 Version^{[11]}2011).A comparison of Rybka 1.0 Beta and Fruit 2.1, pdf, February 24, 2011 Version2011).A comparison of Rybka 1.0 Beta and Fruit 2.1, pdf, March 11, 2011 Version » Rybka, Fruit2011).Review of the Rybka case. pdf from OpenChess Forum^{[12]}2012).Another 80-Dimensional Extremal Lattice. Journal de Theorie des Nombres de Bordeaux, Vol. 24, No. 1, pdf2012).A Critical Aanalysis of the four parts of Riis. pdf^{[13]}2012).A status report on Losing Chess. pdf2013).Review of the Rybka case. pdf2014).Move Similarity Analysis in Chess Programs. Entertainment Computing, Vol. 5, No. 3, preprint as pdf^{[14]}2014).Solved Openings in Losing Chess. ICGA Journal, Vol. 37, No. 2, preprint as pdf2017).Losing Chess: 1. e3 Wins for White. ICGA Journal, Vol. 39, No. 2## Forum Posts

## 2010 ...

20112012^{[15]}2013## 2015 ...

## External Links

## References

2014).Solved Openings in Losing Chess. ICGA Journal, Vol. 37, No. 2A Gross Miscarriage of Justice in Computer Chessby Søren Riis## What links here?

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