by Fred Guterl from Silicon gambit - computer chess and human thinking^{[4]} :

The government laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, got hold of one of the first computers, maniac I, so that Ulam and the other H-bomb researchers wouldn't have to stay up nights solving their voluminous equations with pencil and paper. Ulam, who described himself modestly as a "fair" chess player, couldn't resist putting the machine to work on a project of somewhat less import to coldwar strategy. Together with physicist Paul Stein, he wrote one of the first chess-playing programs.

The late Stanislaw Ulam invented the Monte Carlo method in 1949 in order to solve problems in nuclear physics (see Metropolis and Ulam, 1949), while working at the Manhattan project developing nuclear weapons, and contributing to the major breakthroughs of their time. In fact, the idea occurred to him in 1946, while trying to estimate the chances of winning Canfield solitaire. Even much before Ulam, Enrico Fermi, Buffon (the “needle experiment”), and others experimented with precursors of the method.

The Monte Carlo method has since been used extensively and successfully in space-shuttlere-entryaerodynamics, operations research, physical chemistry, numerical integration, finance and many more, in addition to physics. I was glad to see that the ideas of Stan Ulam on games and physics re-emerged after almost 70 years. Stan was a theoretical mathematician, but excelled also in applied math, physics and biology, and was involved with the early 6 x 6 computer chess program. Above all, he was extraordinarily original.

Home * People * Stanislaw UlamStanisław Marcin Ulam, (April 13, 1909 – May 13, 1984)a Polish mathematician, known for his participation in the Manhattan Project , the Teller-Ulam design of thermonuclear weapons and the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam experiment. A group of H-bomb researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory around Stanislaw Ulam, Paul Stein, Mark Wells and John Pasta developed the chess-playing program

^{[1]}^{[2]}for the MANIAC I by John von Neumann and Nicholas Metropolis. It played Los Alamos chess on a 6×6 board without bishops.^{[3]}## Table of Contents

## Quotes

## Fred Guterl

by Fred Guterl fromSilicon gambit - computer chess and human thinking^{[4]}:The government laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, got hold of one of the first computers, maniac I, so that Ulam and the other H-bomb researchers wouldn't have to stay up nights solving their voluminous equations with pencil and paper. Ulam, who described himself modestly as a "fair" chess player, couldn't resist putting the machine to work on a project of somewhat less import to coldwar strategy. Together with physicist Paul Stein, he wrote one of the first chess-playing programs.## Aviezri Fraenkel

by Aviezri Fraenkel^{[5]}:The late Stanislaw Ulam invented the Monte Carlo method in 1949 in order to solve problems in nuclear physics (see Metropolis and Ulam, 1949), while working at the Manhattan project developing nuclear weapons, and contributing to the major breakthroughs of their time. In fact, the idea occurred to him in 1946, while trying to estimate the chances of winning Canfield solitaire. Even much before Ulam, Enrico Fermi, Buffon (the “needle experiment”), and others experimented with precursors of the method.The Monte Carlo method has since been used extensively and successfully in space-shuttle re-entry aerodynamics, operations research, physical chemistry, numerical integration, finance and many more, in addition to physics. I was glad to see that the ideas of Stan Ulam on games and physics re-emerged after almost 70 years. Stan was a theoretical mathematician, but excelled also in applied math, physics and biology, and was involved with the early 6 x 6 computer chess program. Above all, he was extraordinarily original.## Selected Publications

1949).The Monte Carlo Method. Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 44, pp. 335–3411957).Experiments in chess on electronic computing machines. Chess Review, 13 January 1957.1957).Experiments in chess. Journal of the ACM, Vol. 4, No. 21959).Quadratic Transformations: Part I. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-2305, republished in Stanislaw Ulam (1990).Analogies Between Analogies: The Mathematical Reports of S.M. Ulam and his Los Alamos Collaborators. Berkeley: University of California Press1976).Adventures of a mathematician. amazon.com, University of California Press1986).Science, Computers, and People - From the Tree of Mathematics. Birkhäuser1987).Stanislaw Ulam 1909-1984. Los Alamos Science, No. 15Gian-Carlo Rota (

1987).The Lost Café. pdfPaul Stein (

1987).Iteration of Maps, Strange Attractors, and Number Theory - An Ulamian Potpourri. pdf1989).From Cardinals to Chaos: Reflections on the Life and Legacy of Stanislaw Ulam. Cambridge University Press1990).Analogies Between Analogies: The Mathematical Reports of S.M. Ulam and his Los Alamos Collaborators. Berkeley: University of California Press2013).Reflection. ICGA Journal, Vol. 36, No. 1 » Monte-Carlo Tree Search## See also

## External Links

## References

1957).Experiments in chess on electronic computing machines. Chess Review, 13 January 1957.1957).Experiments in chess. Journal of the ACM, Vol. 4, No. 22013).Reflection. ICGA Journal, Vol. 36, No. 1## What links here?

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