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also American Checkers or English draughts, is a variant of Draughts played on an eight by eight board using 32 either dark or light squares. Like Chess, Checkers is a two-player zero-sum and perfect information abstract strategy board game.

Each side starts with twelve checkers, placed on the three back-ranks. Black moves first, alternating with White - there is no passing move. Checkers move one step diagonally forward, kings diagonally forward and backward. When a checker reaches the last rank, it promotes to a king. Checkers and king capture men by jumping over them to an empty square behind (checkers only forward). Captures are compulsory, one must play a capture if at least one is available, and is required to continue jumping and capturing as part of the same turn. However, a checker reaching the last row must stop to be crowned and can move no further on that turn [1]. The side run out of moves loses.
Checkers board [2]

Computer Olympiads

Solving Checkers

In 2007, the Chinook team around Jonathan Schaeffer declared Checkers solved [3] [4] [5].


The first Checkers program was written by Christopher Strachey, National Research Development Corporation, London, in the early 1950s to run on a Pilot ACE at the National Physical Laboratory, exhausting its memory [6], and soon ported to the Ferranti Mark 1 [7] [8]. His checkers program from 1966 [9] written in CPL is available on-line, in a corrected version with courtesy of Peter Norvig [10] [11]. The second program was written in 1956 by Arthur Samuel [12]:

American checkers

Classical checkers

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External Links


  1. ^ Mr. Fred Investments | CheckerMaven / RulesOfCheckers
  2. ^ Checkers (English draughts) from Wikipedia
  3. ^ Jonathan Schaeffer, Neil Burch, Yngvi Björnsson, Akihiro Kishimoto, Martin Müller, Rob Lake, Paul Lu, Steve Sutphen (2007). Checkers is Solved. Science, Vol. 317 (5844). Work named by Science Magazine as one of the 10 most important scientific achievements of 2007
  4. ^ Checkers Is Solved
  5. ^ Chinook - Solving Checkers
  6. ^ Christopher Strachey from Wikipedia
  7. ^ artificial intelligence (AI) :: Early milestones in AI from Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  8. ^ Christopher Strachey (1952). Logical or non-mathematical programmes. Proceedings of the 1952 ACM national meeting
  9. ^ Christopher Strachey (1966). System Analysis and Programming. Scientific American, September 1966, republished August 23, 2011
  10. ^ Complete Annotated Strachey Checkers Program by Peter Norvig
  11. ^ Prescient but Not Perfect: A Look Back at a 1966 Scientific American Article on Systems Analysis by Peter Norvig, August 23, 2011
  12. ^ English draughts - Computer players from Wikipedia
  13. ^ Chinook - Solving Checkers
  14. ^ Some studies in machine learning using the game of checkers by Arthur Lee Samuel from Jeremy Norman's Historyofscience.com - Used Book - Paperback - First Edition
  15. ^ Marion Tinsley vs. Chinook - Wikipedia
  16. ^ Blondie24 by David B. Fogel, Book Review, © Copyright 2003, Jim Loy
  17. ^ perft for 8x8 checkers by Aart Bik, CCC, May 08, 2009

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