Home * Chess

a two-player zero-sum abstract strategy board game with perfect information as classified by John von Neumann. Chess has an estimated state-space complexity of 1046 [1] , the estimated game tree complexity of 10123 is based on an average branching factor of 35 and an average game length of 80 ply [2] .
This page is about the basic chess items, chessboard, pieces and moves, and how they are considered or encoded inside a chess program, to either represent a chess position inside its search and to play the game of chess. It sub-pages intersect with evaluation, board representation and even search topics.
Mark Wilkinson, Chess [3]

Board and Squares

Pieces and Moves

Color and Side

The Game of Chess

During the Game

The End

Chess Variants

Chess Problems

Chess and Mathematics

Chess Maxima

Chess and Psychology

Chess and Philosophy

Quote from Philosophy Looks at Chess [13] :
The game of chess has endured since at least the sixth century. Its earliest variant, the Indian game of Chaturanga, was from the beginning a game for thinkers. Since its inception, scholars, statesmen, strategists, and warriors have been fascinated by the game and its variants. German philosopher Emanuel Lasker and famed French artist Marcel Duchamp were both Grandmasters at chess. Karl Marx played chess avidly, as did Sir Bertrand Russell, Jean-Paul Sartre, and the logical positivist Max Black. Jean-Jacques Rousseau [14] mentions in his Confessions that, at the time, he "had another expedient, not less solid, in the game of chess, to which I regularly dedicated, at Maugis's, the evenings on which I did not go to the theater. I became acquainted with M. de Légal, M. Husson, Philidor, and all the great chess players of the day, without making the least improvement in the game." More recently, philosopher Stuart Rachels reports that his father, the late philosopher and prominent ethicist James Rachels, received a bribe from a Russian Grandmaster while he was the chair of the U.S. Chess Federation's Ethics committee.

Chess Programs called Chess

See also



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  • Alan Kotok (1962). A Chess Playing Program for the IBM 7090, B.S. Thesis, MIT, AI Project Memo 41, Computation Center, Cambridge MA. pdf

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  • Ingo Althöfer (1985). Das 3-Hirn - Entscheidungsteilung im Schach. Computerschach und Spiele, pp. 20-22 (German)
  • Ingo Althöfer (1989). A Survey of Some Results in Theoretical Game Tree Search and the 'Dreihirn'-experiment. Proceedings Workshop on New Directions in Game-tree Search, pp. 16-32. Edmonton, Canada.

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Forum Posts


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External Links



Chess Variants



  1. ^ Shirish Chinchalkar (1996). An Upper Bound for the Number of Reachable Positions. ICCA Journal, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 181-183
  2. ^ Victor Allis (1994). Searching for Solutions in Games and Artificial Intelligence. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Limburg, pdf, 6.3.9 Chess pp. 171
  3. ^ Tableaux ayant pour sujet les échecs
  4. ^ Seirawan chess from Wikipedia
  5. ^ Eero Bonsdorff, Karl Fabel, Olvai Riihimaa (1966) Schach und Zahl - Unterhaltsame Schachmathematik. Seite 11-13, Walter Rau Verlag, Düsseldorf (German)
  6. ^ 50-Züge-Regel - Schachmathematik from Wikipedia.de (German)
  7. ^ Defending Humanity's Honor by Tim Krabbé, see game NewRival - Faile with 493 moves, and playing 402 moves with bare kings!
  8. ^ Shirish Chinchalkar (1996). An Upper Bound for the Number of Reachable Positions. ICCA Journal, Vol. 19, No. 3
  9. ^ John's Chess Playground - Number of chess diagrams and positions
  10. ^ Re: Total possible chess positions? by Álvaro Begué, CCC, March 26, 2014
  11. ^ Does this position blow up your program? by Mike Byrne, CCC, December 23, 2002
  12. ^ Subject: Maximum Number of Legal Moves by Andrew Shapira, CCC, May 08, 2005
  13. ^ Philosophy Looks at Chess by Benjamin Hale
  14. ^ Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Chess by Edward Winter
  15. ^ Chess Metaphors – Artificial Intelligence and the Human Mind by Diego Rasskin-Gutman, ChessBase News, January 28, 2010
  16. ^ Zipf's law from WIkipedia
  17. ^ Machine creativity: what it is and what it isn't by Albert Silver, ChessBase News, August 28, 2016
  18. ^ The joys of chess – and the value of the pieces, ChessBase News, December 21, 2011
  19. ^ Re: Tony's positional test suite by Louis Zulli, CCC, August 01, 2017
  20. ^ Progressive chess from Wikipedia
  21. ^ Using GAN to play chess by Evgeniy Zheltonozhskiy, CCC, February 23, 2017
  22. ^ The Secret of Chess by Lyudmil Tsvetkov, CCC, August 01, 2017
  23. ^ BBC Computer Chess Radio Programme by Harvey Williamson, Hiarcs Forum, September 11, 2010

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