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Deep Blue,
the IBM sponsored successor of the chess entity Deep Thought.

The project was initially started 1985 as ChipTest at Carnegie Mellon University by the computer science doctoral students Feng-hsiung Hsu and Thomas Anantharaman. Murray Campbell, former co-developer of HiTech, joined the ChipTest team a few months later. The program was named Deep Thought after the fictional computer of the same name from The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. Hsu and Campbell joined IBM in 1989, Deep Blue was developed out of this. The name is a play on Deep Thought and Big Blue, IBM's nickname. The declared target was to become the strongest chess entity ever and to beat the human world champion.
Deep blue chip [1]

WCCC 1995

Deep Blue Prototype missed the expected win at the WCCC 1995 by losing the decisive match in round 5 against Fritz after king castling into Fritz's half open g-file. Description given in 1995 from the ICGA site [2] :
Deep Blue Prototype consists of an IBM RS/6000 workstation with 14 chess search engines as slave processors. Each processor contains a VLSI chip for move generation, as well as additional hardware for search and evaluation. Each Deep Thought 2 processor searches about 500,000 positions per second standalone, or about 400,000 positions per second as a slave processor. (This is about 1/10th of the projected speed of the Deep Blue single-processor currently in fabrication.) The 14- processor Deep Thought 2 typically searches between 3 and 5 million positions per second. When conducting a search, the search tree near the root position is processed on the host workstation, and includes selective search extension algorithms such as singular extensions. The deepest nodes in the search tree are handled by the slave search engines which usually do 4-ply alpha-beta searches.

Kasparov versus Deep Blue

Main article: Kasparov versus Deep Blue 1996

Deep Blue was the first machine to win a chess game against a reigning world champion Garry Kasparov under regular time controls. This first win occurred on February 10, 1996, Game 1. However, Kasparov won three games and drew two of the following games, beating Deep Blue by a score of 4–2.

The Rematch

Main article: Kasparov versus Deep Blue 1997

In 1997 Deep Blue won the rematch against Kasparov. He did not recover after the shock by Deep Blues' play in game 2. Kasparov resigned a drawn position, since he missed a deep tricky perpetual check, while he wrongly was confident the machine would not have blundered to allow him to draw. In the final decisive game 6 Kasparov was rather indisposed and blundered in the early opening.

The Deep Blue Team

  • Feng-hsiung Hsu - The man who started the Deep Blue project while still in college
  • Murray Campbell - A former chess champion who works with Deep Blue's evaluation function
  • A. Joseph Hoane - Deep Blue's software engineer
  • C. J. Tan - Senior manager of the Deep Blue development team
  • Jerry Brody - The project's support engineer
  • Joel Benjamin - development team chess consultant, opening book author


5-0 and 5-4.Campbell_Benjamin.1997.L02645333.IBM_ARCHIVES.lg.jpg
The core Deep Blue team, Joe Hoane, Feng-hsiung Hsu, and Murray Campbell [3]

See also

Selected Publications

1995 ...


2000 ...

Forum Posts

1995 ...


2000 ...

2005 ...

2010 ...

2015 ...

External Links



  1. ^ Deep blue chip, International Business Machines (IBM), 1997, Gift of Feng-hsiung Hsu, The Computer History Museum
  2. ^ Deep Thought (Chess) (ICGA Tournaments)
  3. ^ The core Deep Blue team from The Computer History Museum, Courtesy of IBM Archives
  4. ^ "Deep Blue" inspires deep thinking about artificial intelligence by computer scientist by Robert Irion, May 5, 1997
  5. ^ Hans Berliner (1998). Review of Monty Newborn: Kasparov versus Deep Blue. pdf
  6. ^ Re: ICCA Journal Sinks To A New Low by Amir Ban, CCC, January 25, 1998
  7. ^ Monroe Newborn (1997). Kasparov versus Deep Blue: Computer Chess Comes of Age. Springer
  8. ^ Strategic Intensity - A Conversation with World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov by Diane L. Coutu, Harvard Business Review, April 2005
  9. ^ 20 years ago, a computer first beat a chess world champion - 1996-1997 The Kasparov-Deep Blue chess matches by Alex Q. Arbuckle, February 10, 2016
  10. ^ Robert Levinson, Jeff Wilkinson (1997). Deep Blue is Still an Infant. AAAI Technical Report WS-97-04
  11. ^ Komodo 8: Deep Blue revisited (1/2) by Graham Banks, CCC, December 27, 2014
  12. ^ Scientific American article on Computer Chess by Mark Lefler, CCC, June 03, 2017
  13. ^ 4 hours video: B Larsen met Deep Blue in 1993 in Copenhagen by Jens Bæk Nielsen, CCC, June 01, 2014

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