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Ivan Bratko,
a Slovenian computer scientist and researcher in artificial intelligence and computer chess, Professor at the Faculty of Computer and Information Science University of Ljubljana. In 1982, at the University of Edinburgh, Ivan Bratko and Danny Kopec designed the Bratko-Kopec Test [1][2]
Ivan Bratko [3]


Research Interests

Quote from Ivan Bratko's Homepage [4]:
Professor Bratko has conducted research in machine learning, knowledge-based systems, qualitative modeling, intelligent robotics, heuristic programming and computer chess. His main interests in machine learning have been in learning from noisy data, combining learning and qualitative reasoning, constructive induction, Inductive Logic Programming and various applications of machine learning, including medicine and control of dynamic systems.

Chess Endgames

Quote by Maarten van Emden in I remember Donald Michie [5]:
In 1980 I spent another summer in Edinburgh as a guest of Donald Michie. Since the low point of 1975, thanks to assiduous and inventive joint pursuit of funding possibilities by Donald and Jean, the Machine Intelligence Research Unit was alive with work focused on chess endgames. There were students, including Tim Niblett and Alen Shapiro. Danny Kopec was there, perhaps formally as a student, but de facto as the resident chess consultant. Ivan Bratko visited frequently. Alen was the administrator of the dream computing environment of that time: a small PDP-11 running Unix.


In 1979/80, as visiting researcher at University of Edinburgh, Ivan Bratko worked with Zdenek Zdrahal and Alen Shapiro on Pattern Recognition applied to Chess. In fact they used Bitboards, called cellular 8x8 arrays, to implement their Cellular logic processing emulator for chess (CLESS) [6] . CLESS used three kinds of instructions to recognize simple and more complex chess patterns:
  1. bitwise boolean operations without any interactions between squares
  2. shifts as expand instructions
  3. fill-like propagation instructions, internally using the first two kinds of instructions and conditions in loops

Selected Publications

[7] [8]

1978 ...

1980 ...

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2010 ...

2015 ...

External Links


  1. ^ The Kopec Chess Services
  2. ^ Sanny: Some test positions for you post in rec.games.chess.misc August 18, 2008
  3. ^ Ivan Bratko's Homepage
  4. ^ Ivan Bratko's Homepage
  5. ^ I remember Donald Michie (1923 – 2007) « A Programmers Place by Maarten van Emden, June 12, 2009
  6. ^ Zdenek Zdráhal, Ivan Bratko, Alen Shapiro (1981). Recognition of Complex Patterns Using Cellular Arrays. The Computer Journal, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 263-270
  7. ^ ICGA Reference Database (pdf)
  8. ^ dblp: Ivan Bratko
  9. ^ Donald Michie (1976). AL1: a package for generating strategies from tables. ACM SIGART Bulletin, Issue 59
  10. ^ Donald Michie (1976). AL1: a package for generating strategies from tables. ACM SIGART Bulletin, Issue 59
  11. ^ Computers choose: who was the strongest player?, ChessBase News, October 30, 2006
  12. ^ Computer analysis of world champions by Søren Riis, ChessBase News, November 02, 2006
  13. ^ Re: Tony's positional test suite by Louis Zulli, CCC, August 01, 2017

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