I. J. Good, nearest to camera - Cheltenham Chronicle. Final of the
National Chess Club championship, a telephone match. August 20, 1955 ^{[7]}

Five-Year Plan

Jack Good was a strong chess player, and he published several papers related to computer chess in Michie's Machine Intelligence series ^{[8]}, most notably his Five-Year Plan for Automatic Chess in 1968 ^{[9]}, excerpts reprinted in David Levy'sComputer Chess Compendium, covering Material, Quiescence, Turbulence, and Agitation ^{[10]}.

Theorem-Proving

Theorem-proving was mentioned in the Five-Year Plan for Automatic Chess^{[11]}:

Theorem-proving resembles chess Playing in that we have an objective and an analysis tree, or graph, but differs in that a superficial expected pay-off replaces the iterated minimax. The minimax idea can come in if we are trying to prove a theorem and we imagine that we have an opponent who wishes to disprove it. The value of our game is 1 if the theorem is true and — 1 if it is false. In the proof trees described in the paper by Dr D. C. Cooper^{[12]}the 'and's correspond to moves of the opponent, since we must allow for both branches, whereas the `or's correspond to our own moves. The minimax (strictly maximin) value of the tree tells us whether the theorem is true, and, if we allow for superficial probabilities at the endpoints of the tree, the minimax value is the superficial probability of the theorem.

Quotes

Jack Good

by Jack Good, 1998 ^{[13]}:

In letters to Turing, on September 16 and October 3, 1948, I mentioned the idea of resonance circuits in the brain; especially as a method for noticing analogies... In the postscript I discussed chess-playing machines, which he and I had discussed in 1941, and gave a reasonable definition of a forced variation. I took for granted the need to distinguish between quiescent and non-quiescent positions. Shannon's paper on chess appeared in 1950.

In a letter to F C Williams in July 1951 I said "A facetious question is whether it is intended to display chess positions on the monitoring tubes". Of course today it is no longer at all facetious.

To statisticians, Good is one of the founding fathers of Bayesian statistics, an approach to the discipline based on work of Thomas Bayes in 1764. In it one forms a view of the phenomenon under study, quantifying one's uncertainty in terms of a probability distribution (the prior distribution). One then draws a sample, obtaining data, and uses the data and Bayes's theorem to update this prior uncertainty to give a new distribution, the posterior distribution. This approach - the Bayesian paradigm, as it is now called - was little used before Good's work but was given an important boost by his 1950 book and his extensive subsequent writings, and is firmly established today. Good's other interests included artificial intelligence - in particular, training computers to play chess and philosophy.

From Russia with Love

In 1991, Jack Good analyzed the famous position shown in the film From Russia with Love, Kronsteen vs. MacAdams ^{[16]}, with the motive of the position was taken from Spassky versus Bronstein 1960 ^{[17]}. The difference is that MacAdams had 22...Ne6. ^{[18]}^{[19]}

- - - - - -

Kronsteen - MacAdams

Spassky - Bronstein

r3rnk1/ppp1qNp1/7p/4b3/5Q2/1B6/PP4PP/5RK1 w - - 0 1

r3rnk1/ppp1qNp1/7p/2P1b3/3P1Q2/1B6/PP4PP/5RK1 w - - 0 22

Jack Good (1979). Rules for computer chess tournaments: an open letter to the tournament rules and organization committee of the International Computer Chess Association. ICCA Newsletter, Vol. 2, No. 2

^Paul Rushton, Tony Marsland (1973). Current Chess Programs: A Summary of their Potential and Limitations. INFOR Journal of the Canadian Information Processing Society Vol. 11, No. 1, pdf

Home * People * Jack GoodIrving John (Jack) Good, (December 9, 1916 - April 5, 2009)a British statistician and computer pioneer. During World War II, Good worked with Alan Turing and Conel Hugh O'Donel Alexander at Bletchley Park, with Donald Michie and Shaun Wylie et al. in the section Newmanry headed by Max Newman, contributing to crack the German Lorenz cipher

^{[1]}^{[2]}. After the war he worked at the University of Manchester and Atlas Computer Laboratory, and had a variety of defense, consulting and academic positions, until he came to the United States in 1967, becoming a University Distinguished Professor at Virginia Tech. In 1965 he originated the concept of an intelligence explosion, now known as technological singularity^{[3]}, which anticipates the eventual advent of superhuman intelligence^{[4]}. Jack Good died on April 5, 2009, aged 92^{[5]}.^{[6]}## Table of Contents

## Photos

National Chess Club championship, a telephone match. August 20, 1955

^{[7]}## Five-Year Plan

Jack Good was a strong chess player, and he published several papers related to computer chess in Michie'sMachine Intelligenceseries^{[8]}, most notably hisFive-Year Plan for Automatic Chessin 1968^{[9]}, excerpts reprinted in David Levy's Computer Chess Compendium, covering Material, Quiescence, Turbulence, and Agitation^{[10]}.## Theorem-Proving

Theorem-proving was mentioned in theFive-Year Plan for Automatic Chess^{[11]}:Theorem-proving resembles chess Playing in that we have an objective and an analysis tree, or graph, but differs in that a superficial expected pay-off replaces the iterated minimax. The minimax idea can come in if we are trying to prove a theorem and we imagine that we have an opponent who wishes to disprove it. The value of our game is 1 if the theorem is true and — 1 if it is false. In the proof trees described in the paper by Dr D. C. Cooper^{[12]}the 'and's correspond to moves of the opponent, since we must allow for both branches, whereas the `or's correspond to our own moves. The minimax (strictly maximin) value of the tree tells us whether the theorem is true, and, if we allow for superficial probabilities at the endpoints of the tree, the minimax value is the superficial probability of the theorem.## Quotes

## Jack Good

by Jack Good, 1998^{[13]}:In letters to Turing, on September 16 and October 3, 1948, I mentioned the idea of resonance circuits in the brain; especially as a method for noticing analogies... In the postscript I discussed chess-playing machines, which he and I had discussed in 1941, and gave a reasonable definition of a forced variation. I took for granted the need to distinguish between quiescent and non-quiescent positions. Shannon's paper on chess appeared in 1950.

In a letter to F C Williams in July 1951 I said "A facetious question is whether it is intended to display chess positions on the monitoring tubes". Of course today it is no longer at all facetious.

## David Levy

David Levy inComputer Chess Compendium^{[14]}:Perhaps non-linear evaluation functions will become popular at some future date, in which case some of Good's ideas will come into their own.## The Times

Excerpt from the Obituary, The Times^{[15]}To statisticians, Good is one of the founding fathers of Bayesian statistics, an approach to the discipline based on work of Thomas Bayes in 1764. In it one forms a view of the phenomenon under study, quantifying one's uncertainty in terms of a probability distribution (the prior distribution). One then draws a sample, obtaining data, and uses the data and Bayes's theorem to update this prior uncertainty to give a new distribution, the posterior distribution. This approach - the Bayesian paradigm, as it is now called - was little used before Good's work but was given an important boost by his 1950 book and his extensive subsequent writings, and is firmly established today. Good's other interests included artificial intelligence - in particular, training computers to play chess and philosophy.## From Russia with Love

In 1991, Jack Good analyzed the famous position shown in the film From Russia with Love, Kronsteen vs. MacAdams^{[16]}, with the motive of the position was taken from Spassky versus Bronstein 1960^{[17]}. The difference is that MacAdams had 22...Ne6.^{[18]}^{[19]}## See also

## Selected Publications

^{[20]}^{[21]}## 1939

1939).Mathematics and chess. Eureka I## 1940 ...

1941)Fourier Analysis. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, advisor Godfrey Harold Hardy1945).General Report on Tunnyfrom The Turing Archive for the History of Computing1946).Normal Recurring Decimals. Journal of the London Mathematical Society 19461949).The number of individuals in a casade process. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, Vol. 45## 1950 ...

1950).Probability and the Weighing of Evidence. Griffin, London1952/55).Notes on Randomised Chess. Chess1953).The population frequencies of species and the estimation of population parameters. Biometrika, Vol. 40, Nos. 3-4^{[22]}1959).Could a machine make probability judgments?Computers and Automation, Vol. 8## 1960 ...

1962).Botryological speculations. inJack Good, A. J. Mayne, John Maynard Smith (eds.) (

1962).The Scientist Speculates.Heinemann1964).Measurement of decisions. in William W. Cooper, Harold J. Leavitt, Maynard W. Shelly (eds.) (1964).New Perspectives in Organisation Research. pp. 391-404. Wiley1964).The Human Preserve. an Invited Contribution to a Symposium on Extraterrestrial Life held by the Institute of Biology and the British Interplanetary Society, May 1964, Records of Royal Naval Scientific Service1965).Speculations Concerning the First Ultraintelligent Machine. Advances in Computers, Vol. 6, pdf, pdf1965).The generalization of Lagrange's expansion and the enumeration of trees. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, Vol. 61, No. 21965).Logic of man and machine. IPC Magazines Limited1965).The Mystery of Go. Literature: Reports hosted by Atlas Computer Laboratory1966).The probability of war. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, Vol. 1291967).Human and machine logic. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 181968).A New Conjecture Related to the Riemann Hypothesis. in Some Research Applications of the Computer, Atlas Computer Laboratory1968).A Five-Year Plan for Automatic Chess. Machine Intelligence Vol. 2, pdf^{[23]}1969).Analysis of the machine chess game, J. Scott (White), ICL-1900 versus R.D. Greenblatt, PDP-10. Machine Intelligence Vol. 4 pp. 267-270 » John J. Scott, ICL 1900, Richard Greenblatt, PDP-10## 1970 ...

1977).Dynamic Probability, Computer Chess, and the Measurement of Knowledge.Machine Intelligence Vol. 8 pp. 139-1501978).Review of "Advances in Computer Chess, Volume 1. by M.R.B. Clarke"; University Press, 1977. ACM SIGART Bulletin, Issue 66 » Mike Clarke, Advances in Computer Chess 11978).Historical Notes. Personal Computing, Vol. 2, No. 10, pp. 80, October 1978, from Jack Good (1968).A Five-Year Plan for Automatic Chess.1978).Historical Notes. Personal Computing, Vol. 2, No. 11, pp. 27, November 1978, cont.1979).On the Grading of Chess Players. Personal Computing, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 471979).Rules for computer chess tournaments: an open letter to the tournament rules and organization committee of the International Computer Chess Association. ICCA Newsletter, Vol. 2, No. 21979).Studies in the history of probability and statistics. XXXVII AM Turing’s statistical work in World War II. Biometrika, Vol. 66, No. 2## 1980 ...

1982).When will the rules of chess be changed?British Chess Magazine 102, No. 7 (July 1982), 305-306.1988).Some Comments Concerning an Article by De Groot.ICCA Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2/3^{[24]}1988). The Interface Between Statistics and Philosophy of Science. Statistical Science, Vol. 3, No. 4## 1990 ...

1991).Analysis of the chess position shown in the film From Russia with Love, Kronsteen vs. MacAdams.Chess Monthly, Vol. 56, No. 51998).The first game of randomized chess played in a regular chess match.Chess Monthly, Vol. 63, No. 5## 2000 ...

2000).Turing’s anticipation of emprical Bayes in connection with the cryptanalysis of the naval enigma. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, Vol. 66, No. 2^{[25]}^{[26]}^{[27]}## External Links

## References

1945).General Report on Tunnyfrom The Turing Archive for the History of Computing1965).Speculations Concerning the First Ultraintelligent Machine. Advances in Computers, Vol. 6, pdf, pdf1968).A Five-Year Plan for Automatic Chess. Machine Intelligence Vol. 2, pdf1988).Computer Chess Compendium - 3.2 A Five-Year Plan for Automatic Chess (excerpt).1968).A Five-Year Plan for Automatic Chess. Machine Intelligence Vol. 2, pp. 931966).Mathematical proofs about computer programs. Machine Intelligence, Vol. 11988).Computer Chess Compendium, 3 Position Evaluation pp. 1121991).Analysis of the chess position shown in the film From Russia with Love, Kronsteen vs. MacAdams.Chess Monthly, Vol. 56, No. 5You are requested to make a blunderby Tim Krabbé1973).Current Chess Programs: A Summary of their Potential and Limitations. INFOR Journal of the Canadian Information Processing Society Vol. 11, No. 1, pdf1988).A Rejoinder to I.J. Good's Comments.ICCA Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2/32000).On the Convergence Rate of Good-Turing Estimators. COLT 2000, CiteSeerX## What links here?

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