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NUMA, (Non-uniform memory access)
a multiprocessing memory design where the main memory is partitioned between processors. Opposed to SMP, where all processors compete for access to the centralized shared memory bus, making it difficult to scale well bejoind 8 to 12 CPUs [1], NUMA splits the main memory into so called nodes with separate memory busses for subsets of processors, and high speed interconnection between nodes, either directly in so called 1-hop distance, or indirectly in 2-hop distance. Despite the high speed interconnection, NUMA memory access time varies considerably between faster local memory and remote memory of other nodes. Maintaining cache coherence of processor caches adds significant overhead to NUMA Systems, addressed by ccNUMA which is mostly used synonymous for current NUMA implementations [2].
Possible NUMA system [3]

x86

AMD implemented NUMA with its Opteron processor in 2003, using HyperTransport. Intel announced NUMA compatibility for their x86 servers in late 2007 with Nehalem CPUs using QuickPath Interconnect [4].

Considerations

Scheduling of threads across nodes and cores of a system is a complicated topic due to access of independent or shared data. There are several considerations in ccNUMA aware operating systems and software, such as keeping data local by virtue of first touch [5] [6]. NUMA and processor affinity APIs help application programmers to bind threads or processes to NUMA nodes or to allocate memory from a certain node.

See also


Selected Publications


Forum Posts

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External Links

Linux

Windows

x86


References

  1. ^ NUMA Frequently Asked Questions - 9. Why should I use NUMA? What are the benefits of NUMA?
  2. ^ NUMA Frequently Asked Questions - 4. What is the difference between NUMA and ccNUMA?
  3. ^ One possible architecture of a NUMA system. Originally created in Visio 2010, cleaned up with Inkscape, by Moop2000, October 4, 2010, Wikimedia Commons
  4. ^ Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) from Wikipedia
  5. ^ Performance Guidelines for AMD Athlon™ 64 and AMD Opteron™ ccNUMA Multiprocessor Systems (pdf) - 3.2.1 Keeping Data Local by Virtue of first Touch, pp. 22
  6. ^ Re: thread affinity by Robert Hyatt, CCC, July 03, 2015
  7. ^ Georg Hager's Blog | Random thoughts on High Performance Computing

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