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Generally there are two approaches to determine pawn attack-sets, push targets or pawn-structure properties. By a single pawn or set-wise with multiple pawns. Since we have up to eight pawns per side, the set-wise approach has some merits. Disadvantage of set-wise operations is, we likely need different code for white and black pawns, while pre-calculated lookups by color and square allows to write more general code.
Samuel Bak - Hero [1]

Moves and Captures

A pawn captures diagonally forward, but otherwise pushes forward one - or optionally two steps from it's initial rank. For white versus black pawns forward and backward are considered relative from either whites or blacks point of view.


Properties about the pawn structure are likely subject of evaluation.

Pawns in touch

Fills and Spans

Based on Spans

See also


Forum Posts

External Links


  1. ^ Chess in the Art of Samuel Bak, Center for Holocaust & Genocide Studies, University of Minnesota
  2. ^ Hans Kmoch (1959, 1990). Pawn Power in Chess. New York: Dover, 1990. Previous ed.: New York: McKay, 1959. ISBN 0-486-26486-6

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