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Point Value,
a piece relative value concerning its relative strength in potential exchanges based on human experience and learning. Common rule of thumb are the {1, 3, 3, 5, 9} point values for pawn (1), knight, bishop, rook and queen, also proposed by Claude Shannon in his 1949 paper Programming a Computer for Playing Chess [1] . In the evaluation of a chess program, the balance of material, the aggregated point values for both sides, is usually the most influential term.
Wassily Kandinsky, Points [2]

Theoretical Attempt

Jack Good in his Five-Year Plan for Automatic Chess, Appendix F [3]:
A theoretical attempt to evaluate the pieces was made by H. M. Taylor in 1876 [4] , reported by Coxeter (1940, pp. 162-165 [5]). The value of a piece is taken as proportional to the average number of squares controlled, averaged over all 64 positions of the piece on the board. This argument leads to the relative values of N, B, R and Q: 3, 5, 8 and 13 [6]. Coxeter (or Taylor) goes on to modify the argument by asking instead for the probability of 'safely' giving check, that is, without being en prise to the king, if the piece and king are both placed on the board at random. This gives the ratios 12, 14, 22 and 40. These values are good, but this modification
of the argument is artificial.


Basic values

Measured in units of a fraction of a pawn, for instance the common centipawn scale, allows positional features of the position, worth less than a single pawn, to be evaluated without requiring fractions but a fixed point score. Sample point values from various sources over the time, most were used in concrete chess programs.

Source

Year

Pawn

Knight

Bishop

Rook

Queen
H. S. M. Coxeter [7]

1940



300

350

550

1000
Max Euwe and Hans Kramer [8]

1944

100

350

350

550

1000
Claude Shannon [9]

1949

100

300

300

500

900
Alan Turing [10]

1953

100

300

350

500

1000
Mac Hack [11]

1967

100

325

350

500

975
Chess 4.5 [12]

1977

100

325

350

500

900
Tomasz Michniewski [13]

1995

100

320

330

500

900
Hans Berliner [14] [15]

1999

100

320

333

510

880
Larry Kaufman [16]

1999

100

325

325

500

975
Fruit and others [17]

2005

100

400

400

600

1200
Larry Kaufman [18]

2012

100

350

350

525

1000

The king value is often assigned a large constant such as 10000 centipaws, which is important to avoid king captures in certain implementations of SEE.

Reciprocal piece values

Concerning a piece controlling a square, its value of attack might be considered as inverse proportional to its point value, which is an issue in aggregating of mobility or square control terms of different pieces.

Samples


See also


Publications


Forum Posts

1993 ...

2000 ...

2005 ...

2010 ...

2015 ...


External Links


References

  1. ^ Claude Shannon (1949). Programming a Computer for Playing Chess. Philosophical Magazine, Ser. 7, Vol. 41, No. 314 - March 1950
  2. ^ Wassily Kandinsky, Points, 1920, Ohara Museum of Art, Google Art Project, Wassily Kandinsky from Wikipedia
  3. ^ Jack Good (1968). A Five-Year Plan for Automatic Chess - Appendix F. The Value of the Pieces and Squares. Machine Intelligence Vol. 2
  4. ^ H. M. Taylor (1876). On the Relative Values of the Pieces in Chess. Philosophical Magazine, Series 5, Vol. 1, pp. 221-229
  5. ^ H. S. M. Coxeter (1940). Mathematical Recreations and Essays. from the original by W. W. Rouse Ball, Macmillan
  6. ^ Influence Quantity of Pieces - Fibonacci Spiral
  7. ^ see Theoretical Attempt {12, 14, 22, 40} * 25 = {300, 350, 550, 1000}
  8. ^ Max Euwe, Hans Kramer (1944, 1977). Het middenspel, deel 1-4. Spectrum, Utrecht
  9. ^ Claude Shannon (1949). Programming a Computer for Playing Chess. Philosophical Magazine, Ser. 7, Vol. 41, No. 314 - March 1950
  10. ^ Alan Turing (1953). Chess. part of the collection Digital Computers Applied to Games, in Bertram Vivian Bowden (editor), Faster Than Thought, a symposium on digital computing machines, reprinted 1988 in Computer Chess Compendium, reprinted 2004 in The Essential Turing, google books
  11. ^ Richard Greenblatt, Donald Eastlake, Stephen D. Crocker (1967). The Greenblatt Chess Program. Proceedings of the AfiPs Fall Joint Computer Conference, Vol. 31, pp. 801-810. Reprinted (1988) in Computer Chess Compendium, pdf from The Computer History Museum or as pdf or ps from DSpace at MIT
  12. ^ David Slate, Larry Atkin (1977). CHESS 4.5 - The Northwestern University Chess Program. Chess Skill in Man and Machine, reprinted (1988) in Computer Chess Compendium
  13. ^ Simplified evaluation function
  14. ^ Hans Berliner (1999). The System: A World Champion's Approach to Chess. Gambit Publications, ISBN 1-901983-10-2
  15. ^ Chess piece value, the Hans Berliner's system from Wikipedia
  16. ^ Larry Kaufman (1999). The Evaluation of Material Imbalances. (first published in Chess Life March 1999, on-line version edited by Dan Heisman)
  17. ^ Re: 2005 National Computer Chess Championships by Shaun Press, Chess Chat, July 17, 2005 » NC3 2005
  18. ^ Re: What is the correct value of the pieces? by Larry Kaufman, CCC, October 10, 2012
  19. ^ Christian Hesse (2011). The Joys of Chess - Heroes, Battles & Brilliancies. ISBN: 978-90-5691-355-7, New In Chess
  20. ^ Interesting article about the value of the pieces by Aloisio Ponti, CCC, December 22, 2011

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