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SSSE3 (Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extension 3) is Intel's name for the SSE instruction set's fourth iteration. 16 new instructions, also available as MMX-extension with _m64 intrinsic datatype. SSSE3 was introduced in Intel's Core Microarchitecture. SSSE3-intrinsic functions are available in Visual C [1] or Intel-C [2] .

SSSE3 instructions are not available for AMD processors until Bulldozer, which also implements SSE4 and AVX.

Instructions

Some of the new instructions are quite interesting for computer chess, with applications in evaluation and byte shuffling of bitboards.

PH(ADD/SUB)W

Packed Horizontal Add/Subtract Words. Each of the eight shorts integers is the sum/difference between adjacent pairs of elements in the input parameters. Saturating versions, PHADDSW and PHSUBSW, are also available.

The primary downside of these instructions is that they tend to be very slow multiple-uop instructions on most CPUs, resulting in alternate instruction sequences almost always being faster.

Intrinsic

_m128i _mm_hadd_epi16 (_m128i a, _m128i b);

Pseudocode

signed short a[ 8]; // input a
signed short b[ 8]; // input b
signed short r[ 8]; // output r
 
for (i=0; i < 4; i++) {
   r[  i] = a[2i] + a[2i+1];
   r[4+i] = b[2i] + b[2i+1];
}

PMADDUBSW

Packed Multiply and Add a vector of 16 unsigned bytes (char) with a vector of 16 signed bytes (not commutative! [3] ). Two consecutive products are added and the saturated signed 16-bit results are stored as vector of eight signed shorts.

Intrinsic

_m128i _mm_maddubs_epi16 (_m128i a, _m128i b);

Pseudocode

unsigned char  a[16]; // input a
signed   char  b[16]; // input b
signed   short r[ 8]; // output r
 
for (i=0; i < 8; i++)
   r[i] = SATURATE_16(a[2i]*b[2i] + a[2i+1] * b[2i+1]);

PMULHRSW

Packed Multiply High with Round and Scale is an instruction designed for fixed-point math. It is similar to the existing pmulhw, but only shifts right by 15 instead of 16, and adds a factor for correct rounding.

Intrinsic

_m128i _mm_mulhrs_epi16 (_m128i a, _m128i b);

Pseudocode

signed short a[8]; // input a
signed short b[8]; // input b
signed short r[8]; // output r
 
for (i=0; i < 8; i++)
   r[i] = INT16((a[i]*b[i] + 0x4000) >> 15);

PSHUFB

Packed Shuffle Bytes is a very powerful instruction that can perform a fast arbitrary byte-shuffle of a register. It can also set some output bytes to zero instead of selecting them from the input. Packed Shuffle Bytes is used inside the SSSE3 Version of Hyperbola Quintessence to perform byte swaps. There might be some other interesting applications too, such as SSSE3 Population Count. VPPERM from XOP is an even more powerful variant on this instruction.

Intrinsic

_m128i _mm_shuffle_epi8 (_m128i a, _m128i b);

Pseudocode

char a[16]; // input a
char b[16]; // input b
char r[16]; // output r
 
for (i=0; i < 16; i++)
   r[i] = (b[i] < 0) ? 0 : a[b[i] % 16];

PSIGN

Multiplies each element of one vector with the sign function {-1,0,1} of the second vector. The instruction is available for signed bytes (8-bit char psignb), signed words (16-bit short psignw) and double words (32-bit int psignd). If both input operands are equal, the result is a vector of absolute values, though PABS is probably preferred for this purpose.

Intrinsic

_m128i _mm_sign_epi8 (_m128i a, _m128i b);
_m128i _mm_sign_epi16 (_m128i a, _m128i b);
_m128i _mm_sign_epi32 (_m128i a, _m128i b);

Pseudocode

/* type := {char, short, int}, N = {16, 8, 4} */
#define N (sizeof(__m128i)/sizeof(type))
type a[N]; // input a
type b[N]; // input b
type r[N]; // output r
 
for (i=0; i < N; i++)
   r[i] = (b[i] < 0) ? -a[i] : ((b[i] == 0) ? 0 : a[i])

Applications

SSE3 Population Count

In 2008, Wojciech Muła introduced a SSSE3 Population Count performing a pair of PSHUFB 16 parallel nibble in-xmm lookups [4], in the meantime due to AVX2 or AVX-512 even possible with doubled or fourfold register widths, competing the native x86-64 popcount instruction [5]
/**
 * popCount2 
 * @author Wojciech Muła
 * @param v vector of two bitboards
 * @return quad word vector of two popcounts
*/
__m128i popCount(__m128i v) {
  __m128i lu = _mm_setr_epi8(0,1,1,2,1,2,2,3,1,2,2,3,2,3,3,4);
  __m128i lm = _mm_set1_epi8(0x0f);
  __m128i lo = _mm_and_si128(v, lm);
  __m128i hi = _mm_and_si128(_mm_srli_epi16(v, 4), lm);
  __m128i cl = _mm_shuffle_epi8(lu, lo); /* 16 low nibble counts */
  __m128i ch = _mm_shuffle_epi8(lu, hi); /* 16 high nibble counts */
  __m128i cb = _mm_add_epi8(cl, ch); /* 16 byte counts */
  return _mm_sad_epu8(cb, _mm_setzero_si128());
}

Byte-wise Dot-Product

This SSSE3-dot-product multiplies a vector of 64 unsigned chars with a vector of 64 signed char, and adds all 64 intermediate signed 16-bit products with saturation. It uses the pmaddubsw and phaddsw SSSE3 instructions, in total 11 SSE instructions.
int dotProduct(unsigned char features[], char weights[] /* XMM_ALIGN */) {
   __m128i r0, r1, r2, r3;
   __m128i* a = (__m128i*) features;
   __m128i* b = (__m128i*) weights;
   r0 = _mm_maddubs_epi16 (a[0], b[0]);
   r1 = _mm_maddubs_epi16 (a[1], b[1]);
   r2 = _mm_maddubs_epi16 (a[2], b[2]);
   r3 = _mm_maddubs_epi16 (a[3], b[3]);
   r0 = _mm_adds_epi16    (r0, r1);
   r2 = _mm_adds_epi16    (r2, r3);
   r0 = _mm_adds_epi16    (r0, r2); // 8 shorts
   r0 = _mm_hadds_epi16   (r0, r0); // 4 shorts
   r0 = _mm_hadds_epi16   (r0, r0); // 2 shorts
   r0 = _mm_hadds_epi16   (r0, r0); // 1 final short
   short s = (short)_mm_extract_epi16(r0, 0);
   return (int) s; // sign extended
}

SSSE3 Hyperbola Quintessence

Following routine calculates bishop attacks performing the Hyperbola Quintessence. Both anti-diagonal and diagonal attacks are processed in parallel, using both halves of a 128-bit xmm register and pre-calculated arrays of bitboard pairs for line-masks, single- and eventually reversed bits. PSHUFB is used to swap bytes inside a bitboard [6] .

Intrinsic Version

__m128i diaAntiMaskXMM[64]; // 1 KByte  antidiag : diagonal, excluding square
__m128i singleBitsXMM [64]; // 1 KByte    1<<sq  : 1<<sq
__m128i swapMaskXMM; // needs to be initialized to swap the bytes in both quad-words
 
// SSSE3 Hyperbola Quintessence
U64 bishopAttacks(U64 occ, enumSquare sq) {
   __m128i o, r, m, b, s;
   m = diaAntiMaskXMM[sq];         // antidiag : diagonal, excluding square
   b = singleBitsXMM [sq];         // bishop bits, equal qwords
   s = swapMaskXMM;
   o = _mm_cvtsi64x_si128  (occ) ; // general purpose 64 bit to xmm low qword
   o = _mm_unpacklo_epi64  (o, o); // occ : occ
   o = _mm_and_si128       (o, m); // o (antidiag : diagonal)
   r = _mm_shuffle_epi8    (o, s); // o'(antidiag : diagonal)
   o = _mm_sub_epi64       (o, b); // o - bishop
   b = _mm_shuffle_epi8    (b, s); // bishop', one may also use singleBitsXMM [sq^56]
   r = _mm_sub_epi64       (r, b); // o'- bishop'
   r = _mm_shuffle_epi8    (r, s); // re-reverse
   o = _mm_xor_si128       (o, r); // attacks
   o = _mm_and_si128       (o, m); // antidiag : diagonal
   r = _mm_unpackhi_epi64  (o, o); // antidiag : antidiag
   o = _mm_add_epi64       (o, r); // diagonal + antidiag
   return _mm_cvtsi128_si64(o);    // convert xmm to general purpose 64 bit
}

Peshkov's Optimization

The pioneer of Hyperbola Quintessence, Aleks Peshkov, applies a more sophisticated, optimized C++ approach, further utilizing disjoint ray-attacks, and xor instruction is own inverse and distributive over mirroring or flipping. Once per node he instantiates an occupied object based on a type-safe curiously recurring template pattern aka the Barton–Nackman trick to encapsulate the SSE intrinsic data types, to keep a twin of normal and flipped occupancy as base for further file-, diagonal or anti-diagonal attack generations, which then requires only one final shuffle per piece attack getter, whether it is a bishop or even a queen.

class Occupied : public BitSet<Occupied, char_x16_t> {
    typedef BitSet<Occupied, char_x16_t> Base;
 
    struct Mask {
        value_type singleton;
        value_type file;
        value_type diagonal;
        value_type antidiag;
 
        Mask operator () (Square);
    };
    typedef Square::const_array<Mask, Mask> CACHE_ALIGN AttackMask;
    static const AttackMask mask;
 
    struct Shuffle {
        value_type hyperbola;
        value_type flipShift;
        Shuffle ();
    };
    static const Shuffle shuffle;
 
    static BitBoard bitboard(value_type value) {
        return BitBoard(static_cast<BitBoard::value_type>(_mm_cvtsi128_si64(value)));
    }
 
    static BitBoard hyperbola(value_type value) {
        value_type reverse = _mm_shuffle_epi8(value, shuffle.hyperbola);
        return bitboard(value ^ reverse); //xor is principal here
    }
 
    INLINE BitBoard bishopAttack(Square from) const {
        value_type d = value;
        value_type a = value;
        d &= mask[from].diagonal;
        a &= mask[from].antidiag;
        d = _mm_sub_epi64(d, mask[from].singleton);
        a = _mm_sub_epi64(a, mask[from].singleton);
        d &= mask[from].diagonal;
        a &= mask[from].antidiag;
        return hyperbola(d ^ a);
    }
 
    ...
public:
    Occupied (const BitBoard& myB, const BitBoard& opB) {
        value_type my = _mm_cvtsi64_si128(reinterpret_cast<const U64&>(myB));
        value_type op = _mm_cvtsi64_si128(reinterpret_cast<const U64&>(opB));
        op = _mm_shuffle_epi8(op, shuffle.flipShift);
        assert (Occupied(my & op) == empty()); //no intersection
        this->value = my ^ op;
    }
 
    ...
};

See also


External Links


References

  1. ^ Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extensions 3 Instructions
  2. ^ Intel C++ Compiler for Linux Intrinsics Reference (pdf)
  3. ^ fixing SSSE3 pmaddubsw description from the mail archive of the gcc-patches@gcc.gnu.org mailing list for the GCC project
  4. ^ SSSE3: fast popcount by Wojciech Muła, May 24, 2008
  5. ^ Wojciech Muła, Nathan Kurz, Daniel Lemire (2016). Faster Population Counts Using AVX2 Instructions. arXiv:1611.07612
  6. ^ Re: Plain and fancy magic on modern hardware by Robert Purves, CCC, August 23, 2010

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